Substance has three states: solid, liquid and gaseous. LCD Display These three states can also be called solid phase, liquid phase, gas phase. Most of the material in nature exhibits solid, liquid, and gaseous as the temperature changes. Like water, salt, and the elements of each element of the periodic table. Its constituent elements, LCD Display such as water molecules or silicon atoms, are basically like a single ball. LCD Display As the temperature decreases or the temperature increases, the arrangement of the constituent elements changes from a later disorder to an orderly arrangement. From the liquid phase to the gas phase or solid phase. In the crystal, LCD Display the orderly arrangement of the constituent elements, indicating that each constituent unit is in a certain position, is not easy to flow and regular arrangement, as long as people know its arrangement rules, you can start from a constituent unit, LCD Display according to the law to find Another unit, that is, strict space orderly.
In addition to the solid, liquid and solid states we know, some substances, which change from solid to liquid, do not change directly from solid to liquid, but to an intermediate state. LCD Display In the middle of the material appears to seem cloudy liquid. But its optical properties and a certain electrical properties and crystal similar. Is the opposite sex, such as birefringence characteristics. Such as the temperature rise, a variety of turbid substances with the temperature rise will become clear, homosexual liquid. In turn, LCD Display these substances from the liquid into a solid, but also through the middle state. A variety of substances can be in a certain temperature range and the crystal, the two characteristics of the material called liquid crystal (LiquidCrystal) is also called liquid crystal phase, LCD Display intermediate phase or intermediary equal, also known as the fourth state of the material.
Liquid crystal was first discovered by Austrian botanist L.Reinitzer in 1888. It is found in the melting point of certain substances, found that some substances (lipostearic acid ester and ester fat) will melt through an opaque white turbid liquid state and issued a colorful and beautiful luster, as long as the continued heating Will become a clear liquid. In 1889, the German physicist Lehmann (O. Lehmann) designed by him, LCD Display at the time as the latest type of heating device with a polarizing microscope to observe these lipid compounds. He found that such white turbidity material looks like liquid. But is anisotropic crystal unique birefringence. Then Lyman named it "liquid crystal". This is the origin of the LCD.
With the development of science, people know the improvement, found that liquid crystal materials are basically organic compounds. One of every 200 of the existing organic compounds is a liquid crystal phase. From the composition and appearance of liquid crystal phase physical conditions, LCD Display the liquid crystal can be divided into thermotropic liquid crystal and lyotropic liquid crystal two categories. In some organic matter dissolved in heating, due to heating damage to the crystalline lattice and the formation of liquid crystal called thermotropic liquid crystal, LCD Display is the first few said because of the heating of some substances appear liquid crystal phase. Similarly, some of the organic matter in a certain solvent, due to the destruction of crystalline crystal lattice and the formation of liquid crystal called solute liquid crystal. LCD Display It is the liquid crystal phase present due to the change in solution concentration. The most common are soapy water and so on. Currently used for display materials are basically thermotropic LCD. So far, has been found in the LCD has more than 20,000 kinds.
Among the many liquid crystals, the most widely used in the display technology, LCD Display the application of the most liquid is composed of simple rod-shaped organic molecules composed of liquid crystal, various types of molecules usually have the structure: the molecular stiffness of the core is composed of two A benzene ring and a functional group in the middle, at the core of the two relatively soft alkyl or other relatively soft organic molecular chain. LCD Display A melting chain in an epoxy resin structure, so that molecules into chiral molecules.