The substance has three states: solid, liquid and gaseous. These three states can also be called solid phase, liquid phase, gas phase. Most of the material in nature exhibits solid, liquid, LCD Display and gaseous as the temperature changes. Like water, salt, and substances from each element of the periodic table. Its constituent elements, such as water molecules or silicon atoms, are basically like a single ball. As the temperature decreases or the temperature increases, the arrangement of the constituent elements changes from a later disordered arrangement to a neatly ordered arrangement. From the liquid phase to the gas phase or solid phase. LCD Display In the crystal, the orderly arrangement of the constituent elements, indicating that each constituent unit is in a certain position, is not easy to flow and regular arrangement, as long as people know its arrangement rules, LCD Display you can start from a constituent unit, according to the law to find Another unit, that is, strict space orderly.
In addition to the solid, liquid, and solid states we know, LCD Display some substances, which change from solid to liquid, do not change directly from solid to liquid, but to an intermediate state. In the middle of the material looks like the appearance of turbid liquid. But its optical properties and a certain electrical properties and crystal similar. Is the opposite sex, such as birefringence characteristics. Such as the temperature rise, a variety of turbid substances with the temperature rise will become clear, LCD Display homosexual liquid. In turn, these substances from the liquid into a solid, but also through the middle state. A variety of substances can be in a certain temperature range and the crystal, the two characteristics of the material called liquid crystal (LiquidCrystal) is also called liquid crystal phase, intermediate phase or intermediary equal, also known as the fourth state of the material.
Liquid crystal was first discovered by Austrian botanist L.Reinitzer in 1888. It is found in the melting point of certain substances, found that some substances (lipostearic acid ester and ester fat) will melt through an opaque white turbid liquid state and issued a colorful and beautiful luster, as long as the heating Will become a clear liquid. In 1889, the German physicist Lehmann (O. Lehmann) designed by him, at the time as the latest type of heating device with a polarizing microscope to observe these lipid compounds. LCD Display He found that such white turbidity material looks like liquid. But is anisotropic crystal unique birefringence. Then Lyman named it "liquid crystal". This is the origin of the LCD.
With the development of science, people know the improvement, LCD Display found that liquid crystal substances are basically organic compounds. One of every 200 of the existing organic compounds is a liquid crystal phase. From the composition and the emergence of liquid crystal phase physical conditions, the liquid crystal can be divided into thermotropic liquid crystal and lyotropic liquid crystal two categories. LCD Display In some organic matter heating dissolved, due to heating damage to the crystalline lattice and the formation of liquid crystal called thermotropic liquid crystal, LCD Display is the first few said because of heating some substances appear liquid crystal phase. Similarly, some organic substances in a certain solvent, due to the destruction of crystalline crystal lattice and the formation of liquid crystal called solute liquid crystal.