Matter has three states: solid, liquid and gaseous. These three states can also be called solid phase, liquid phase, gas phase. Graphic LCD Display In nature, most substances present in solid, liquid and gaseous form as the temperature changes. such as water, salt, and material consisting of each element in the periodic table. Its constituent units, such as water molecules or silicon atoms, are basically like pellets. As the temperature decreases or the temperature rises, the arrangement of the constituent units is transformed from the later unordered arrangement into a neat orderly arrangement. From liquid phase to gas phase or solid phase. In the crystal, Graphic LCD Display the orderly arrangement of constituent units, indicating that each constituent unit is in a certain position, not easy to flow and regular arrangement, as long as people know its arrangement rules, you can start from a constituent unit, Graphic LCD Display according to the law to find another unit, that is, strict spatial order.
In addition to the solid, liquid and solid states we know, some matter, they are not directly from solid to liquid, but to an intermediate state in the process of transition from solid to liquid. A liquid that appears to be turbid in the appearance of a substance in the middle. But its optical properties and some of these electrical properties are similar to crystals. is the opposite sex, if has the birefringence characteristic and so on. As the temperature rises, various turbid substances become clarified and same-sex liquids as the temperature increases. Graphic LCD Display In turn, these substances are changed from liquid to solid, but also through the intermediate state. Various can be in a certain temperature range and liquid and crystal, the characteristics of the two substances called Liquid crystal (LIQUIDCE) is also called liquid crystalline phase, intermediate phase or intermediary is equal, also known as the fourth state of matter.
LCD was first discovered by Austrian botanist Lenitzle (Freinitzer) in 1888. It is in the determination of some substances melting, found that certain substances (fatty acid lipid and ester acid lipid) dissolved after a opaque white turbidity liquid state and emit a colorful and beautiful luster, Graphic LCD Display as long as the continued heating will become clear liquid. In 1889, the German physicist Lyman (O.lehmann) was designed by him to observe the lipid compounds at the time as the newest type of polarizing microscope with a heating device. Graphic LCD Display He found that this type of white turbid matter looks like a liquid. However, it is characterized by birefringence of anisotropic crystals. So Lyman named it "liquid crystals." This is the origin of liquid crystal。